Overgrazing: The feeding of the worlds livestock is a major problem as fodder is not available in plenty throughout the year, in many areas. They then assessed each of these areas for current conservation pressures and the possibility of future threats to biodiversity. The forests stretch along the coast of West Africa through several nations including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gabon, Cameroon, Liberia, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, and Ghana. The occurrence of various kinds of flora and fauna in a region reflects its biological diversity or biodiversity. Credit, J Healey, Bangor University Fruit of the mock orange tree, containing the seeds that are widely dispersed by native bird species.
Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. Mass extinctions of this magnitude have only occurred five times in the history of our planet; the last brought the end of the dinosaur age. Referring to examples, discuss the threats to biodiversity hotspots and why these threats could prove critical 15 marks Biodiversity hotspots are areas in the natural environment that contain some of the biggest concentration of flora and fauna in the world, often containing many rare and endangered species. There are also endangered bird species such as the Siberian crane, the Great Indian Bustard, the Florican and several birds of prey. Most extinction over the past several hundred years is mainly due to overharvesting for food, fashion, and profit.
This threatens biodiversity and could prove critical as the environment is being destroyed and species may also become extinct as a result of alien species. The second is that our knowledge of biodiversity, threats, and costs is continually improving. The hotspots were identified to increase public awareness of the cost-effectiveness of strategic and timely action to conserve biodiversity. Activities such as mining, construction of large dams, highway construction has also caused significant destruction of habitats. Land clearing, salinity, feral animals, weeds and the root-rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi threaten the biodiversity values of the hotspot.
In a world where conservation budgets are insufficient given the number of species threatened with extinction, identifying conservation priorities is crucial. Because the natural values of hotspots are largely intact, undertaking action now to maintain these values has the potential to provide value-for-money in contributing to our efforts in biodiversity conservation. However, efforts by conservationists since the 1970s have helped stabilize and grow these populations. In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution for tackling illicit trafficking in wildlife. The Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot originally covered more than 1. Extensive unsustainable sheep grazing is degrading the landscape, and the damage is exacerbated by feral herbivores such as rabbits.
Polynesia-Micronesia, Southern Pacific Ocean The Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot covers an area of about 41,285 km2 and includes coastal wetlands, coral atolls, savannas, and tropical rainforests. Deforestation, fires, over-consumption of living species, and hunting are other threats to biodiversity hotspots. Since endemic species cannot be found anywhere else, the area where an endemic species lives is wholly irreplaceable. The original eastern arc mountains and coastal forests hotspot has been partitioned, such that the coastal forests of eastern africa stand alone as a separate hotspot now extending into southeastern somalia and southern mozambique , while the eastern arc mountains have been grouped with the mountains of the southern rift, albertine rift and ethiopian highlands to form the eastern afromontane hotspot. Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat loss is mainly due to human population growth, industrialization and changes in the land use patterns, poaching of wild life and man wildlife conflicts. The relatively undisturbed saltmarsh of the Glenelg River is an important breeding site for wetland and coastal seabirds. But what actually is a hotspot? And with the loss of effective ecosystems, medicine, food, shelter and other valuable resources for our needs will be lost.
The Diversity of Life Belknap, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1992. Agricultural development began in 1829, with the arrival of the first European settlers to the region. Examples of biodiversity hotspots are forest habitats as they constantly face destruction and degradation due to illegal logging, pollution and deforestation. Now, several years after the publication of the previous reassessment of the hotspots strategy, it was time to revisit the hotspots themselves. Nowadays, it is widely acknowledged that biodiversity is much more than just the number of species in a region and a conservation strategy cannot be based merely on the number of taxa present in an ecosystem.
Fauna: Nearly 77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else. Feral animals such as rabbits, foxes, cats, goats and deer threaten native plants and animals through grazing, competition and predation. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1. Competition for food resources also occurs when humans attempt to harvest natural resources such as fish and grassland pasture. Coastal saltmarsh provides important over-wintering habitat for the endangered Orange-bellied Parrot. Studying these forests over a period of 40 years, the researchers found a continuing increase in the abundance of the invasive Pittosporum, so it now accounts for more than 10% of all tree stems. This hotspot straddles the South Australia -Victoria.
Fragments are much more easily accessible to human incursions than are intact forests. The Pilbara's large coastal plains and inland ranges support an extensive sheep and cattle grazing industry. Introduced alien species Introduced alien species, especially foxes and cats, threaten native fauna and have caused major declines in species like the Endangered numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus in Southwest Australia. Threats to the hotspot's biodiversity include: Agriculture The greatest human impact in Southwest Australia has been the clearing of native vegetation for agriculture. A major requirement for accreditation was that plans covered the full range of natural resource management issues, including biodiversity conservation.
The migratory patterns of some birds which live in both tropical and temperate regions during the year seem to be shifting, which is dangerous for these species, as they may arrive at their breeding or wintering grounds at an inappropriate time. Changing fire regimes and exotic weeds which accompany more intensive grazing have the potential to affect bird species such as the endangered Buff-breasted Button-quail, now restricted to only a few sites. The predominant vegetation type here is tropical, subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Many plants are threatened due to overharvesting as ingredients in medicinal products. Researchers have also found that the hotspots hold more people than expected.