The Mexican mines also used far fewer people, so that the Hispanic element predominated more than in Peru, and the north of Mexico was soon on its way to having a Hispanized, mobile population very different from that in the central part of the country. Silver mining was the type of technically demanding, capital-intensive enterprise that called for close attention and much expertise on the part of owners. Beware of native uprisings, painted warriors, and poisoned darts around the next corner, and watch out for defection in your own ranks. Later, de Las Casas came to regret this advice. The encomienda was primarily a transaction between the encomendero, the cacique, and his people, but it could not stop there. They had a complicated hieroglyphic writing and a mathematics system, and their calendar was more exact than the European's calendar.
Its people were subjugated and with them, hundreds, thousands of years' culture and civilisation were suppressed. Jobs, government positions, titles to land, and almost everything else in the Americas functioned according to this system with those at the top getting preference over those lower on the list. The Spanish slaughtered thousands of Aztecs, and Cortés stepped into the role of governor of New Spain, as Mexico was now called. Even their household and family structures were different. However, European powers were able to exploit their colonies and increase their wealth by using slave labour or very cheap indigenous labour. From the northern line of Mexico to the southern extremity of the continent the Spanish and Portuguese had established themselves in nearly every available region.
It was 1517 before another expedition from Cuba visited Central America landing on the coast of the Yucatán in search of slaves. The process whereby Hispanic society penetrated into the hinterland was begun by their usually humble rural employees, who combined tax collecting, labour supervision, farming, and livestock growing. Cities In the late 15th century most of Iberia was consolidated into three kingdoms—Portugal, , and —of which the last two were united through royal marriage. Aztec control was eradicated by 1526. They lacked social classes, depending on gender and age for their primary social distinctions. The household and land regime remained much the same in its organization despite reductions and losses. The 1494 between Spain and , dividing the non-European world between them, gave the Portuguese a legal claim to a large part of the area to be called Brazil.
The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population. Spain was to have the lands to the west and Portugal those to the east accounting for the use of the Portuguese language in Brazil today. Philip's attempt to gather information delayed the governance of the empire even more that it was under his predecessors. The large population did not last, however. He then returned to Spain to report his findings. In the years following the Aztecs' defeat, Spanish policy underwent changes. The Spanish built communities, they scavenged for the land, for power and for control.
It is debatable whether religion or greed played the most important role. The Aztecs knew how to restore land from the lake — in other words, to dry up sections of the lake in order to expand the islands. Most of the transatlantic firms of the conquest period had broken up by now. How were they able to do it? For information about the individual countries of Central America and South America as well as the Romance-language-speaking Caribbean countries, see specific country articles by name: for Central America, see, , , , , , and ; for South America, see , , , , , , a départément of , , , , , , and ; and, for the Caribbean, see , the , and. Atahualpa accepted — backed by thousands of loyal warriors, he was not afraid of Pizarro and his men, who numbered less than 200. A complex set of practices had grown up for the treatment of the women and children involved in informal unions. In his drive to gather riches, Columbus and later conquistadors enslaved and decimated the local populations.
But these diseases were unknown in America, and so the Native Americans had not had chance to build up any resistance to them. Many died en route, the survivors shipped primarily to and Peru. The , the , the war of Mexico's west, and the in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. Historians are unsure of whether a united Inca Empire could have defeated the Spanish in the long term due to factors such as the high mortality from disease and its related social disruption, and the superior military technology of the conquistadors, who possessed horses, dogs, metal armor, swords, cannons, and primitive, but effective, firearms. The fringe also saw of necessity the building of forts and the creation of standing military forces, paid, if poorly, by the royal government. A substantial number of had also long made Iberia their home.
. Rather than counting only from father to son to grandson, the Iberians kept track of a network of connections, as many made through the female line as the male. In Mexico the bulk of the Spanish population concentrated in the area of highest indigenous population density, favouring contact, cultural change, and merging. At the same time, ships grew larger and faster. He also began to get to know the natives.
He discovered the Island of Trinidad and the mouth of the Orinoco River. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. By 1500, despite a high death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. Shortly afterwards, the Spanish defeated the Aztec people. Additionally, the encomienda system of forced slavery of locals killed many more natives through hard labor and privation.