Niccolo Machiavelli Biography Niccolo di Bernardo Machiavelli 1469-1527 Nationality: Italian Place of Birth: Florence, Italy Place of Death: Florence, Italy Table of Contents: Personal Information: Also Nicolo, Niccholo, and Nicolas; also Machiavegli, Machiavello, and Machiavel Italian essayist, dramatist, historian, sketch writer, biographer, dialogist, writer of novellas, and poet. Belfagor, prose novella, date uncertain. He was employed in a great variety of missions, including one to the Emperor Maximilian, and four to France. Machiavelli was acutely aware, however, of foreign threats to Italian autonomy and thus deemed it necessary for a strong prince to thwart French and Spanish hegemony. Rarely, until the nineteenth century, did mention of The Prince elicit other than unfounded and largely unexamined repugnance, much less encourage objective scrutiny of its actual issues.
Today we describe those who do bad deeds for the sake of political power as Machiavellian and their views as Machiavellianism, both words coming originally from the French. As defense secretary, he distinguished himself by executing policies that strengthened Florence politically. Dismayed by the performance of mercenaries hired by the Florentine government, he persuaded Soderini to back a plan to create a native Florentine militia, very much against the wishes of the Florentine aristocracy. In the same year Machiavelli was appointed to the second chancery of the republic. He entered the Florentine government after being accepted for the position of a clerk in 1494, the same year the Medici family was disgraced and exiled. Although pardoned later, he was obliged to retire from public life and as a result, he devoted himself to literature. His Golden Ass, though never completed, was written in 1517, followed in the subsequent year by his comedy Mandragola.
His father, Bernardo Machiavelli, was a lawyer, although not a very prosperous one, with much of his income derived from family property rather than his law practice. Machiavelli was married from 1501 till his death, with his wife Marietta bearing seven children. The Medici fell from power in 1494, replaced by Girolamo Savonarola, a Dominican friar who led a charismatic religious government. This did nothing to dampen his popularity, and The Prince was soon translated into all the major European languages. He discusses military knowledge, liberality and parsimony, to be loved or to be feared, trustworthiness, good and bad reputations. Seldom has a single work generated such divergent and fierce commentary from such a wide assortment of writers. Machiavelli spent the enforced retirement writing the small body of political writings that insured his literary immortality.
Subsequently, he became involved with several local intellectual groups and started writing plays which received much appreciation. Through misrepresentation and misunderstanding his writings were spoken of as almost diabolical, his most violent assailants being the clergy. Summary The Prince is unique, not because it explains how to take control of other lands and how to control them, but because it gives advice that often disregards all moral and ethical rules. Although there is no indication he was actually involved, Machiavelli was imprisoned and tortured to extract information. In this way those who read my remarks may derive those advantages which should be the name of all study of history; and although the undertaking is difficult, yet, aided by those who have encouraged me in this attempt, I hope to carry it sufficiently far, so that but little may remain for others to carry it to its destined end.
And how can i compare this comedy whith the ones by Moliere?. No official records of Machiavelli's life appear until 1498, immediately after the fall of Savonarola's government, when he would have been 29. A few months later, two young malcontents were arrested and found with a list of supposed conspirators against the Medici. The Florence of Machiavelli's time was a rich, vibrant city—a center of the arts—of which Lorenzo was a great patron, and a hub of intellectual activity. Examining Livy's account of the Roman republic, Machiavelli discussed at length the concept of republican government. Florence had risen to prominence as a banking center, and the Medici banking family had been the effective rulers of Florence since 1434.
Among these, he highly prized his copy of Livy's history of the Roman Republic. The Prince was written against this backdrop, and in its conclusion Machiavelli issued an impassioned call for Italian unity, and an end to foreign intervention. Lorenzo's truly magnificent public displays and artistic ventures drained the Medici fortune, and his successor, Piero, proved unpopular. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote some histories on the royal courts and cities he visited, Portrait of the affairs of France, Portrait of the affairs of Germany and A summary of the affairs of the city of Lucca. Machiavelli died on 21 June 1527 in Florence. From 1494 to 1512 he held an official post at Florence which included diplomatic missions to various European courts.
Machiavelli would say that Gandhi would fail in his mission to end British rule without fighting, for Machiavelli would believe Gandhi would only succeed with military strength, but we know that Gandhi did succeed, despite his lack of weaponry. In Clizia, young Cleandro and his aging father, Nicomaco, compete for the love of beautiful Clizia, who is Nicomaco's ward. Florence was among the many Italian city-republics frequently contested by the larger political powers of the day—the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, along with France and Spain. From 1503 to 1506 Machiavelli was charged with a reorganization of the military defense of the republic of Florence. The term Machiavellian came to mean a person willing to use any means necessary to attain power. It would be another 354 years before Italy would be finally united under Garibaldi. In 1519 Machiavelli was partly reconciled with the Medici and he was given various duties, including writing a history of Florence.
The Prince is concluded with a call by Machiavelli for Italy to be united under one prince, as that is how God wants it to be, he claims. When the Medici family returned to power in 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed from his office and briefly jailed. Soon, he launched his career as a diplomat, and upon exhibiting his remarkable intellect, he was sent on diplomatic missions to several major cities in Italy as well as abroad, including France and Spain. During this time, he wrote many letters to his friend and fellow Florentine diplomat Francesco Vettori, who had been appointed ambassador to Rome, looking for news of the outside world and hoping Vettori could recommend him to the Medici family. When Machiavelli came home to Florence, he found it on the verge of collapse as Cesare Borgia attempted to create a principality for himself south of Florence in central Italy.