The Desires, and other Passions of man, are in themselves no Sin. Hobbes stresses the importance of seeking peace, which can really only be done through a commonwealth: 'For it can never be that war shall preserve life, and peace destroy it. For to be subject to Lawes, is to be subject to the Common-wealth, that is to the Soveraign Representative, that is to himselfe; which is not subjection, but freedome from the Lawes. For, as to the strength of body, the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest, either by secret machination or by confederacy with others that are in the same danger with himself. For as the nature of foul weather lieth not in a shower or two of rain but in an inclination thereto of many days together, so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting but in the known disposition thereto during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary. The first maketh man invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation.
To this war of every man against every man this also is consequent, that nothing can be unjust. Even if a man were an entirely suitable arbitrator in his own cause, the demand of equity that each party receive equal benefit implies that if one is allowed to be a judge the other should be allowed also; and if that happens the controversy - that is, the cause of war - still stands, which is against the law of nature. Does he not there as much accuse mankind by his actions as I do by my words? And the invader again is in the like danger of another. By this means it was, that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the People against the Senate, having won to himselfe the affections of his Army, made himselfe Master, both of Senate and People. If they were, they could be in a man who was alone in the world, as his senses and passions can. Where there is no common Power, there is no Law; where no Law, no injustice.
Howsoever, it may be perceived what manner of life there would be where there were no common power to fear, by the manner of life which men that have formerly lived under a peaceful government use to degenerate into, in a civil war. The inequalities that now obtain between men have been introduced by the civil laws. No more are the actions that proceed from those passions, till they know a law that forbids them; which, till laws be made, they cannot know, nor can any law be made till they have agreed upon the person that shall make it. The Passions That Incline Men To Peace The Passions that encline men to Peace, are Feare of Death; Desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living; and a Hope by their Industry to obtain them. Because of their independence from one another, they are in continual mutual jealousies.
If they were, they might be in a man that were alone in the world, as well as his Senses, and Passions. And the Invader again is in the like danger of another. These articles are they which otherwise are called the laws of nature, whereof I shall speak more particularly in the two following chapters. Freedom of religion will lead to fighting and civil war, as it had in England. For seeing the Ghostly Power challengeth the Right to declare what is Sinne it challengeth by consequence to declare what is Law, Sinne being nothing but the transgression of the Law; and again, the Civill Power challenging to declare what is Law, every Subject must obey two Masters, who bothe will have their Commands be observed as Law; which is impossible. For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto.
Chapter 13: Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerning their Felicity and Misery concerns how men are equal and why, because of that equality, war becomes the standard in a state of nature. Since one or more men may desire the same end for example, food or shelter , they are in a constant state of conflict and competition with one another. Book 3: Of a Christian Common-Wealth Hobbes begins the third section with an attack on religious writings. So that in the nature of man, we find three principal causes of quarrel. Hobbes states that churches steal authority from the sovereign, thus leading to civil war.
But though there had never been any time, wherein particular men were in a condition of warre one against another; yet in all times, Kings, and persons of Soveraigne authority, because of their Independency, are in continuall jealousies, and in the state and posture of Gladiators; having their weapons pointing, and their eyes fixed on one another; that is, their Forts, Garrisons, and Guns upon the Frontiers of their Kingdomes; and continuall Spyes upon their neighbours; which is a posture of War. From this fundamental law of nature, by which men are commanded to seek peace, is derived this second law: Second law of nature: When a man thinks that peace and self- defence require it, he should be willing when others are too to lay down his right to everything, and should be contented with as much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself. So that in the nature of man, we find three principall causes of quarrel. Those savages live right now in the brutish manner I have described. Again, men have no pleasure but on the contrary a great deal of grief in keeping company where there is no power able to overawe them all. For the Soveraign, is the publique Soule, giving Life and Motion to the Common-wealth; which expiring, the Members are governed by it no more, than the Carcasse of a man, by his departed though Immortal Soule.
For ordinarily there is no greater sign that something is equally distributed than that every man is contented with his share! So someone who is biased in his judgments is doing his best to deter men from the use of judges and arbitrators, and so he is - against the basic law of nature - a cause of war. In going from the state of nature to society, a set of natural persons agree to a covenant, whereby a common power is established as an artificial person to enforce the terms of the contract. So that justice consists in the keeping of valid covenants; but the validity of covenants begins only with the setting up of a civil power sufficient to compel men to keep them; and that is when property is also begins. The first use violence, to make themselves masters of other men's persons, wives, children, and cattle; the second, to defend them; the third, for trifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other sign of undervalue, either direct in their persons or by reflection in their kindred, their friends, their nation, their profession, or their name. For without that, the controversies of men cannot be settled except by war. First, Competition; Secondly, Diffidence; Thirdly, Glory.
Fear makes natural man want to escape the state of nature; reason shows him how to escape. Hobbes states and then refutes a number of religious arguments in this book, proving that he is very familiar with religion. Rebuild of Hail to the King. Hobbesian material bodies constantly and violently collide with each other in the way that human bodies struggle and clash in the state of nature. But this proveth rather that men are in that point equall, than unequall. For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no government at all, and live at this day in that brutish manner as I said before. He restates that it is up to the government to provide religion to the people.
Book 4: Of the Kingdom of Darkness Hobbes does not refer to hell when he writes about the Kingdom of Darkness, as he doesn't believe in hell. A sovereign should impress religion upon the people. The second law states that people should start a commonwealth and quit the state of nature. Questioning the government like Aristotle, belief in demons or finding God in a church can all lead to this Kingdom. But why try to demonstrate to learned men something that is known even to dogs who bark at visitors - sometimes indeed only at strangers but in the night at everyone? In this war of every man against every man nothing can be unjust. Again, Hobbes believes his argument can be validated recursively, so we should wait and see if what he derives from this theory of human nature is valid. This forbids us to inflict punishment with any purpose other than to correct of the offender or to direct others.
For the savage people in many parts of America have no government at all except for the government of small families, whose harmony depends on natural lust. This is the law of the Gospel: Whatever you require others to do to you, do it to them. And the ·successful· invader will then be in similar danger from someone else. For such is the nature of men that, howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty or more eloquent or more learned, yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves, for they see their own wit at hand and other mens at a distance. Whatever Leviathan was, this creature had some kind of an estuarineor marine habitat for its home, and it was certainly a rather largeand 'terrible' thing to behold - what some would correlate with adinosaur, although this is not conclusive, as it could have been afish unlikely or a mammal. The first natural law is that human must never endeavour to harm themselves, thus we should strive for peace so we can have the best chance at survival. From this equality of ability ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends.