The charters provided a fundamental constitution and divided powers among legislative, executive, and judicial functions, with those powers being vested in officials. For Britain, the goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses to increase the flow of gold and silver pouring into London. The Acts were in full force for a short time only. Beaver pelts were the first great American trade commodity. This became the biggest business seen in New England up to that time.
The king's revenue was of course diminished by direct trade with Europe, because the taxes levied at English ports were avoided. V, in Documentary Source Book of American History, 1606-1913, edited by William MacDonald 1863-1938 , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1916, pp. This act, had it been enforced, would have seriously curbed American trade with the West Indies. And the condition of the bonds shall be that within 18 months of their date the danger of the seas expected certificate be procured that the goods mentioned have been discharged in a proper port. He disregarded local representation, restricted town meetings, actively promoted the Church of England in largely Puritan regions, and enforced the unpopular Navigation Acts. The Navigation Acts, directed the flow of goods between England and the colonies.
Colonial products could not be shipped directly to any foreign nation. Many refused, fearing the possibility of losing their land; they viewed the process as a thinly veiled land grab. Other, non-specified goods, could go directly to foreign ports from English colonies in English ships. The government had to fight smuggling—which became a favorite American technique in the 18th century to circumvent the restrictions against trading with the French, Spanish, or Dutch. The measures, originally framed to encourage the development of English shipping so that adequate vessels would be available in wartime, became a form of trade protectionism during an era of. Beaver hats served as a status symbol for position and wealth in the 1600 and 1700's. The British wereselfish by doing so.
King Charles had other plans, he desperately needed money and so did England. This was due to the fact that they offered cheaper rates, and had significant financial capital to invest in shipping. The Navigation Acts 1 All foreign trade had to pass through England and had to be done with English ships with English crews. Navigation Acts - The 1651 Navigation Act restricted Dutch Shipping The 1651 Navigation Act was passed in the English Parliament. Imports of commo … dities such as sugar and tobacco had to be landed, and tax paid before being sent on to other countries.
Provided always, that this Act, nor anything therein contained, extend not, or be meant to restrain the importation of any of the commodities of the Straits or Levant seas, laden in the shipping of this nation as aforesaid, at the usual ports or places for lading of them heretofore, within the said Straits or Levant seas, though the said commodities be not of the very growth of the said places. The activity of the Dutch, however, gradually secured to that nation the virtual control of the colonial carrying trade. And it is further enacted and declared by the authority aforesaid, that all laws, by-laws, usages or customs, at this time, or which hereafter shall be in practice, or endeavoured or pretended to be in force or practice, in any of the said plantations, which are in any wise repugnant to the before mentioned laws, or any of them, so far as they do relate to the said plantations, or any of them, or which are any ways repugnant to this present act, or to any other law hereafter to be made in this kingdom, so far as such law shall relate to and mention the said plantations, are illegal, null and void, to all intents and purposes whatsoever. This meant that the English colonies could only receive European goods via England. The First Anglo-Dutch War, which lasted from 1652 to 1654, was a direct result of the Navigation Acts of 1651.
Dutch ships, called fluits or flyboats, could ship colonial exports more cheaply, offer a greater variety of imports, and generally provide a level of reliability England could not match. Laws could be examined by the Board of Trade, which also held veto power of legislation. The rising tensions between the two superpowers led to the First Anglo-Dutch War, after which the Dutch were forced to accept the Act. That in case the said Ship or Vessel shall loade any of the said Commodityes at any of the said English Plantations, that the same Commodityes shall be by the said ship brought to some Port of England Ireland Wales, or to the Port or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede and shall there unload and put on shore the same, the danger of the Seas onely excepted, And for all ships coming from any other Port or Place to any of the aforesaid plantations who by this Act are permited to trade there, that the Governour of such English plantation shall before the said Ship or Vessel be permited to loade on board any of the said Commodityes take Bond in manner and to the value aforesaid for each respective Ship or Vessel, That such Ship or Vessell shall carry all the aforesaid Goods that shall be laden on board in the said ship to some other of His Majestyes English Plantations, or to England Ireland Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede. In 1642, parliament exempted New England exports and imports from all duties, and a few years later all goods carried to the southern colonies in English vessels were put on the free list. The widespread resentment caused ultimately led to the American Revolution.
Unfortunately, however, England faced some stiff competition in that area. The most favored Massachusetts merchants were those with connections to the London contractors. The second important Navigation Act was the Staple Act of 1663, which provided that all goods exported from Europe to America must first land in England. . Within a few years, Dutch and Spanish merchants overwhelmed English merchants in commerce on the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean, and the Levant.
Most Europeans at the time, including the British, believed that a nation could become powerful by restricting its imports and increasing exports to accumulate more wealth. Dutch ships could no longer pick up colonial exports or bring most imports into England and her colonies. In 1672, an act was passed requiring that goods had to be shipped to England before they could pass from one of the American colonies to another. In spite of all efforts, the Navigation Acts could scarcely be enforced at all as colonists became lawbreakers. Beginning late in the 17th century, the administration of all British colonies was overseen by the Board of Trade, a committee of the Privy Council.
These Acts formed the basis for British overseas trade for nearly 200 years. This loss of local power was widely hated. The dissolution of the Dominion presented legal problems for both Massachusetts and Plymouth. The sales of hats made from beaver skins were an extremely important source of income to the British nation. Typically, they enjoyed greater civil and religious liberties than provincial colonies. The system came into its own at the beginning of the colonial era, in the 17th century. A joint stock company was a project in which investors would buy shares of stock in building a new colony.