Had the case not been dropped before going to court, Van Maanen was to face contempt of court charges. Delivery Channels Direct marketing is one of the most controversial methods of advertising channels, especially when the approaches included are unsolicited. Examples include: feminine hygiene products as well as hemorrhoid and constipation medication. It is an attempt to manipulate a person's thinking without the person realizing that any such manipulation is occurring. A final point to consider is the effect field work might have on subjects' behavior Kidder 1981.
Sagrin 1973 , on the other hand, challenged researchers to respect the rights of people who do not wish to be researched. In contrast, locating homosexuals by recording their license plate numbers while they are engaged in supposedly secret homosexual activity poses quite a different situation Humphreys 1970. Researcher should protect anonymity and confidentiality of information collected from respondents. Finally, our paper presents ethical guidelines for researchers to consider when designing research. He noted an ingenious sociologist studying drug peddlers. Following are the some issues and considerations regarding respondents rights which researcher should consider in any marketing research activity.
The effect of both topic and method expansion in consumer research is that researchers are becoming closer -in terms of intimacy as well as physical proximity -to their respondents. Similarly, organizations open to the public such as Alcholics Anonymous who willingly welcome individuals trying to overcome addictions may not wish to be used as research venues. In developing countries the regulating watchdogs and related establishments are still in stages of latency so that the possibility that viewers who would be subject to such measures would probably never ever know that they were the focus of such procedures. Deceptive Practices The ease with which a company can access and gather data about its customers can lead to deceptive practices and dishonesty in the company's research methods. Volunteer participation is the very heart of marketing research. Smoking accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths. According to the theory of subliminal advertising the image would, indeed, register in a viewer's subconscious mind, thereby causing the viewer to negatively associate Al Gore with a rodent.
Each party in a marketing transaction brings a set of expectations regarding how the business relationship will exist and how transactions should be conducted. There are, however, exceptions to the positive effects of informed consent. Rather, deception by way of not revealing all details about one's self is an accepted part of human relations. Four reasons are attributed to the fugacious nature of the way marketing practices are being carried out in developing countries 1. Mobile network providers in India for example are notorious for literally bombarding the users with promotional text messages.
Many a times these companies share customer data with other companies without the explicit permission of the customers themselves. Anticipation of potential consequences might also be an alternative to serving jail time. Advertisers for such products have agreed to cut down on television ads aimed specifically at children, who are not mature enough to make informed decisions -- but nothing has been said about marketing on social media platforms where more and more children are spending their time. While this might inhibit information flow, less information may be more valuable than contesting a court subpoena. Planned obsolescence is a policy of designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become unfashionable or no longer functional after a certain period of time and put the consumer under pressure to purchase again.
The problem of deception becomes more crucial in a field setting where respondents may not be aware of their participation in research. Whether marketing and selling high health risk products is ethical e. Ethical Issues Involving Protection of the Public Researcher should not product falsified or wrong project or research reposrt. On-line business has raised a host of new issues such as honesty and responsibility, accountability, privacy and confidentiality, protection of data i. Further, companies can be faced with a public backlash if their market research practices are perceived as unethical. Ethical issues in marketing arise from the conflicts and lack of agreement on particular issues.
Confidentiality means that although the researcher knows who the respondent is, identity or information shared within the research context will not be revealed. Deceptive Advertising and Ethics Deceptive marketing is not specific to one target market, and can sometimes go unnoticed by the public. However, alcohol and cigarette companies alike are using the avenue of surrogate advertisements to press forward their case. Consumer researchers may wish the above scenario was a vision from the twilight zone and nothing close to a situation they might encounter. Interviewer should not use gathered information for personal use or gain or advantages.
Ã Pricing ethics : list of unethical pricing practice:. Other ethical issues -such as confidentiality and deceptionre-levant to current research were also addressed in early literature on marketing ethics Tybout and Zaltman 1974. Knerr 1982 suggests researchers take the following precautions to minimize the threat of legal action: 1 desensitize the research through design and statistical techniques rendering the data useless to legal authorities, or 2 store the data with a researcher residing outside the U. Alternative Approaches To Maintaining Confidentiality Particularly when researching illegal activities or behaviors that might encourage illegal acts, protection of respondent confidentiality becomes an even thornier dilemma. World Wide Web versus the Wild Wild Web: To many, the utopian concept of the internet is that of a valueless zone-a free network that is outside the purview of human control and restrain. While a judicious use of advertising can stimulate developing countries to improve their standard of living, serious harm can be done to them if advertising and commercial pressure become so irresponsible that communities seeking to rise from poverty to a reasonable standard of living are persuaded to seek this progress by satisfying wants that have been artificially created. Bid rigging is a type of fraud in which a commercial contract is promised to one party, however, for the sake of appearance several other parties also present a bid.
Though they are not alive yet, they do contain the ability to develop into an organism, a human, and they were intentionally created to do just that. The informed consent is usually considered important in the research studies where the data collection bodies are considered as liable to ask for the permission of participants before collecting any kind of data form them. Because so many people is using social media it makes it easy for companies to associate with customers and gather their data, and personal information, along with unrelated information that goes directly into a computer database. Events like these forced the reexamination of ethical standards and the gradual development of a consensus that potential human subjects needed to be protected from being used as 'guinea pigs' in scientific research. Examples of unethical market exclusion are past industry attitudes to the gay, ethnic minority, and plus-size markets.
Deceptive Marketing Policies and Ethics Deceptive marketing policies are not contained in a specific limit or to one target market, and it can sometimes go unseen by the public. Barnes 1979 argued that deception is an integral part of all social relations. This selectivity does not impart credence to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture. Steiner 1976 noted that prejudices against marketing date back as far as ancient Greece. Ethic in research is about doing research with honesty and conclude with best of the knowledge researcher had.