Add appropriate masses to the weigh beam. Open both the globe valve and the gate valve on the test panel. The valve of h 1 and h 2 were measured and recorded. The water levels in the manometer tubes show the piezometric head. Further research might well then be devoted to the phenomenon of aging of pipes. So the observed hf can also be given by the Darcy equation: As you know hf, L, D and V which you can get from the flow rate and diameter using the continuity equation , you can rearrange this equation for the friction factor λ.
Using a stop watch, measure the elapsed time between closing the valve and accumulation of a convenient quantity of water in the bucket as indicated by tipping of the weigh beam. Once you have a value for λ, the only unknown in the equation is the head loss coefficient K. Cussons P6112 Hydraulics Bench Fitted with Variable Speed Unit Water is drawn from the main reservoir by the centrifugal pump and delivered via a plastic flexible hose to the control valve mounted on the front panel. Connect manometer tapping points immediately preceding each fitting under test to the left hand tube of each pair of manometers using the flexible tubing. Water is used at different flow regimes. Frictional Head Losses Frictional head losses are losses due to shear stress on the pipe walls. The manometer hoses were connected to the pressure tapping points of the pipe 1.
A controller is connected to the motor which allows the speed to vary between 0 and 5000 rpm. Record flow and pressure readings. Built the platform when taking the parallax error. The values of f in the Moody diagram and in the Colebrook-White equation are empirical, i. Ecological imbalance considerations due to dam construction 7.
The slope of that line will be f. Evaluation of Energy Losses in Pipes. An attempt was made to explain… 2445 Words 10 Pages Fluid Mechanics Laboratory 2 Report Robby Joseph 14103508 1. The concept is very similar to sudden expansion in pipe flow, except that hydraulic jumps occur in open-channel flow. The experimental lift force the aerofoil experienced when positioned at different angles of attack was then compared with theoretical values. Step 6 to 8 for 5 values of Q actual were repeated.
Their diameter vary from 13 mm to 25 mm, and their surface roughness from smooth to. Minor head losses are expressed as: 11 The constant K m is a characteristic of the type of singularity, and its value varies consequently. The review of the different relationships allowing the determination of these losses and their comparison to the experimental results obtained by the authors constitute the object of this study. The apparatus consists of a test length of pipe work pipe i. All flow regimes were found to be turbulent. We then checked that the peizometer tubes were connected to the correct tappings. This valve should remain fully open at all times.
This lead to the production of large-scale turbulence resulting in the creation of eddies. This drag causes significant reduction in speeds achieved by vessels moving through fluids. Attach a Hoffman clamp to each of the two manometer connecting tubes and close them off. Convert to metres for the calculation. Care should be taken that the bucket does not overflow at high flow rates. The F1-18 Pipe Friction Apparatus.
The valve of h 1 and h 2 were measured and recorded. To obtain these losses, it is necessary to extend the hydraulic grade lines from the locations of the manometer taps to the elbow and valve Fig. The test Test Pipe pipe diameter is measured in mm. Knowing the steps for the lab is extremely important because especially in chemistry if something is done out of order it can be dangerous. Several other investigators provided the literature with diverse diagrams. Running low flow rate tests Repeat procedure given above but using water manometer throughout.
The Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe, orientated vertically on the side of the equipment, which may be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or, alternatively, from the integral constant head tank. Close the bench gate-valve, open the test rig flow control valve fully and start the pump. Evaluation of Energy Losses in Pipes. There are two piezometer taps upstream of the elbow, two between the elbow and the valve, and two downstream of the elbow. The loss of energy because of various pipe fittings is expressed as: whereis the fitting loss coefficient Singh 2009, p19.
Determine the flow rate by timed collection and measure the temperature of the collected fluid. Gillesania, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics, Engg. The network of conduits also includes diverse appurtenances simulating singular head losses. Inlet and throat diameters of the pipe 1 were recorded. When a real viscous fluid flows through a pipe, part of its energy is spent through maintaining the flow.