Administration during Chola Dynasty Administration: During the Chola Dyansty the entire South India came under a single government. A rich literature depicts the life and work of those people, yet without a hint of time periods. The village assembly took land tax and local levies. Navy helped in the conquest of the Ceylon, Srivijaya. Corruption also played a major role in the decline of this Dyansty. Historians during the past 150 years have gleaned a lot of knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, , religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions.
Situating the Beginning of Early Historic Times in Tamil Nadu: Some Issues and Reflections, Social Scientist, Vol. Other regional powers, such as the Cheras, Hoysalas and Kakatiyas were also defeated, and the Pandyas emerged as the new dominant power in southern India. It is believed that the Cholas is the name of the ruling family or clan of ancient antiquity. It is disputed whether this trade with the Mediterranean world was managed on equal terms by the Tamil merchants, in view of the existence of apparently unequal political institutions in south India. Tradition tells that the Kalvar rulers kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers in their confinement.
These coins bore the image of fish, singly or in pairs, which where their emblem. They ruled the whole peninsula and reduced the power of the and the , also making and Pandyan provinces. Champakalakshmi, Kesavan Veluthat, and T. The greatest of his enemies were the whom he defeated in battles. Even the Chera territory and the northern Sri Lanka were occupied by him in 996. However, they shifted their capital to and continued to rule the Tirulnelveli, Tuticorin, Ramanad, Sivagangai regions.
Towards the close of the 6th century, the Pallava Simhavishnu stuck a blow against the Kalabhras. There was remarkable autonomy at the village level. The Cholas left behind a lasting legacy. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by later inscriptions. He celebrated his victory by performing Virabhisheka coronation of the victor at Kalyani after sacking Kalyani and assumed the title of Vijayarajendra.
Celebrated by poet Arichil Kizhar in the 8th decade. A large body of works collectively known as the c. The rulers of , based out of the port of Kollam in southern Kerala, claimed their ancestry from the Kodungallur Cheras. They were given lighter punishments in case of offences committed. Social Life: The caste system was the basis of the social organization under the Cholas. Several Vedic mantras refer to the wide use of the pearls.
Subramanian says the Pallavas were originally a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. The Cheras of the early historical period had an important base at - probably identical with the early Tamil literature age Vanchi - in central Tamil Nadu. While the previous invasions were content with plunder, Ulugh Khan annexed the former Pandyan dominions to the Delhi Sultanate as the province of Ma'bar. He went upto Bengal and became victorious on the banks of Ganges. Rajendra was succeeded by his son Rajadhiraja I in 1044 A. Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean. The present form of notes the Cherapadah as one of the three peoples who did not follow some ancient injunctions.
Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. The Chola kings avidly built temples, envisioned them in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity. The Hirahadagalli Plates were found in Hirehadagali, and is one of the earliest copper plates in and belongs to the reign of early Pallava ruler Shivaskanda Varma. By this time, the old state of Venad was divided into several autonomous collateral branches such as Trippappoor , Elayadathu, , Desinganad , and Peraka Thavazhi. His residence was at the city of Thondi. The Saiva and Vishnava canons were collected and categorized during this period. The Chola power recovered during Sundara Chola's reign.
The Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. This period witnessed the rise of other powers that challenged the dominance of the Chola Empire in the southern Indian region. Cholas hold on Pandyan kingdom had already weakened. All Chola kings built temples and endowed great wealth to them. They also outlasted 's loss of the ports of and the c.
There were gigantic trade guilds that traded with Java and Sumatra. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. A History of India 4 ed. The Chola king Kantaman, a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya is known for brining river Kaveri into existence with his devotion. The Chinese pilgrim , who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639 — 640 writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya'. Cheras ruling from Karur in copper and stone, mostly placed between 9th and 10th centuries, are found in central Tamil Nadu.