According to an estimate, about 0. Usually over cropping occurs in areas where there is a demand for crops either for market or a large local population. Thus, it can be inferred that when there is overcultivation, the possibility of soil erosion is likewise to occur. Although the erosion caused by long-lasting and less-intense storms is not as spectacular or noticeable as that produced during thunderstorms, the amount of soil loss can be significant, especially when compounded over time. When soil erosion occurs, the is typically facilitated by either a natural process — such as wind or water movement — or by the impact of man, such as through tilling farmland. Check out our Soil Erosion Products or give our team a call at or see. According to an estimate of 1992, every year 20.
Such conditions are found in arid lands and along the sand shores of oceans, lakes and rivers. Erosion by rivers is faster because the processes carried out byrivers are far faster; for example, a river meander may move to theother side of the valley in a decade, yet a glacial trough may notwiden by a single centimeter in the same time. Sheet erosion lowers the fertility of the soil, because it removes the most productive layer, which has usually been enriched by fertiliser. Silt can smother the spawning beds of fish, by filling in the space between gravel on the stream bed. From the , over 1. Many exposed subsurface soils on eroded sites tend to be more erodible than the original soils were, because of their poorer structure and lower organic matter.
The first phase of this process is weathering which is essentially physico-chemical in nature. The amount of water present in the soil before the precipitation also plays an important role, because it sets limits on the amount of water that can be absorbed by the soil and hence prevented from flowing on the surface as erosive runoff. Marginal lands though sustainable for farming are less fertile and more prone to degradation. Other causes Nutrient disorder: Most of the Indian soils are deficient in nutrients and organic matter. Therefore, low-lying streams, rivers and even constructed drainage channels collect water runoff.
However, a severe weather occurrence or other experience can contribute to rapid-moving erosion, which can cause great harm to the area and its inhabitants. In as much as different countries employ varied strategies to counter the problems, they remain dominant as the countries lack proficient mechanisms. Awash with it During a February 2004 storm in Manawatū, there were 62,000 landslides, totalling 1,000 million tonnes of soil. The annual loss of land is expected to go up to 10 million hectares by 2000 A. Exacerbating this is the fact that most of the trees are generally removed from agricultural fields, allowing winds to have long, open runs to travel over at higher speeds.
Each week, measurements were taken and the data was charted. The relationship is particularly strong if heavy rainfall occurs at times when, or in locations where, the soil's surface is not well protected by. The distinct path where the soil has been washed away by surface water runoff is an indicator of rill erosion. Principles of Soil Conservation and Management. Natural basins without outlet for water, low permeability of subsurface horizons, internal drainage, low intake rate of surface soils and obstructions to natural flow of rain water etc. Erosion by Glaciers Glaciers are giant rivers of ice that slowly move carving out valleys and shaping mountains. It occurs whenever the natural balances in the landscape are changed by human activity through misuse or overuse of soil.
The of rain drops is reached in about 8 metres 26 feet. Gully erosion Gully erosion occurs on unconsolidated subsoils. Gully formations are difficult to control if corrective measures are not designed and properly constructed. Deteriorating the Agricultural Sector: Soil erosion has arguably the greatest impact on the agricultural sector. As land loses fertility, reduced income of farmers, less plant growth leads to further erosion, environment suffers like faces with a prospect of famine, when more trees will be cut down. The effect of increased sediments loads on aquatic ecosystems can be catastrophic. Seeds can be disturbed or removed and pesticides can be carried off.
Gully erosion can spell big problems for farmers because the affected land is not able to be used for growing crops, and the big ditches create a hazard for the farmer driving his farm machinery over the fields. In , if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to 's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. Call our team at or fill out our to discuss your requirements. For example, in the , it is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as 6100 times greater in drought years than in wet years. According to the , an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of , and. These factors reduce the yield. Crop growth on shoulder slopes and knolls is slow and stunted due to poor soil structure and loss of organic matter and is more susceptible to stress under adverse conditions.
In extreme cases, soil becomes unfit for cultivation. Introduction Soil erosion is one form of soil degradation along with soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation, and soil acidity problems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. At the surface is the level of artifacts, this includes all the things that one hears, sees and how they feel whenever they encounter a new group with a culture that is not in any way familiar to them. Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Sheet erosion is caused by the effect of rainfall on the surface soil. This leads to the damaging of the soil structure as the level of nutrients is removed and the air between peds is compressed out.